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At the machine level, numbers are represented as bits. Integers are bits. Floats are bits. But in Ruby we use higher-level numbers.

**Ruby examples.** We explore numeric types and conversions in this language. Conversions are done with the Integer and Float built-in methods.

**Integer, Float.** Here we convert string data to number types. A string may contain digits but not be a number. With the Integer conversion, we convert it to one. We also use Float.

**Here:** We convert the string "1234" into an Integer. And we convert a string with floating-point data into a Float.

**Then:** We add the two numbers together. This shows they are no longer strings, which could not be added in this way.

Based on:Ruby 2Ruby program that converts strings, numbers# Two strings with numeric contents.value1 ="1234"value2 ="1234.5678"# Convert strings to numbers.number1 =Integer(value1) number2 =Float(value2)# Print numbers.print "Number1: ", number1, "\n" print "Number2: ", number2, "\n"# Add numbers together. # ... Could not be done with strings.number3 = number1 + number2# Print final number.print "Number3: ", number3, "\n"OutputNumber1: 1234 Number2: 1234.5678 Number3: 2468.5678

**Exponents.** We can directly use exponents, with the two-star operator. In this program, we raise a value to the power of two, and then to the power of three.

**Tip:** More advanced mathematical operations are available as methods in the Math class.

Ruby program that uses exponents# An initial value.value = 3# Square the value.square = value** 2# Cube the value.cube = value** 3# Display our results.puts square puts cubeOutput9 27

**Rand.** This generates a pseudo-random number within in a range. The range is inclusive—the lowest or highest bounding numbers may be returned by rand. By default, a range of 0 to 1 is used.

**Here:** We generate a random number between 0 and 1. Then we generate six more, all between 0 and 5 (inclusively).

**Srand:** The srand method is also available: this seeds the random number generator. Srand is not normally needed.

**Note:** Calling srand with a constant number will make a program always use the same random numbers.

Ruby program that uses random numbers# Display random number between 0 and 1.putsrand# Display 6 random numbers between 0 and 5 inclusive.for i in 0..5# Call with range.r =rand0..5puts r endOutput0.3299959902490742 2 4 2 0 1 5

**Srand.** This seeds the random number generator. Typically it is best not to invoke this method. It may make the random number stream more deterministic.

**Note:** If you use a constant with srand, the random stream of numbers is not random anymore. This does not seem random.

**Instead:** Each time I run this program, it returns 0.41 and 0.72. This is because the random number generator was seeded with a constant 1.

Ruby program that uses srand# Use constant seed.srand1# Display random numbers.puts rand puts randOutput0.417022004702574 0.7203244934421581

**Zero, nonzero.** Zero() returns true or false. If the number is zero, it returns true. Otherwise, it returns false. Nonzero meanwhile returns the original number if it is not zero.

**And:** If the number is zero, nonzero returns nil. So it returns the number with 0 changed to nil.

Ruby program that uses zero, nonzerovalue = 0 if value.zero?puts"A"end if value.nonzero?puts "B"# Not reached.end value = 1 if value.nonzero?puts"C"endOutputA C

**Eql operator.** Unlike the "==" operator, eql compares types. So a floating point number, like 1.0, is not equal to an Integer number like 1. The == operator treats them as equal.

**Tip:** Using the == operator is superior in most programs. The eql method just adds complexity—1.0 usually should equal 1.

Ruby program that uses eqlvalue1 = 1 value2 = 1.0 value3 = 1 if value1.eql?value2 puts "A"# Not reached.end if value1 == value2 puts"B"end if value1.eql?value3 puts"C"endOutputB C

**Math.** Some numeric operations can be done directly, with operators like + or minus. But many math methods exist, included for easy access. These handle more complex things like sqrt.

**A summary.** Tasks that involve numbers are often language-specific. In Ruby, we have many helpful operators available on numbers. We convert and manipulate numbers with ease.